Wind Engineering

I have worked in the field of wind engineering and bluff body aerodynamics throughout my career, largely concerned with the intermediate wind speed range between the low wind speeds of relevance to ventilation and wind energy studies, and the high wind speed range of most relevance to structural design. Thus the main thrust of my work has been in the fields of sustainability and resilience – how to make structures and infrastructure and agricultural systems safe, reliable and fit for purpose.  Some recent papers in this area are given below, together with links to the publishers’ site. The blog entries in this category take some of these issues further, and include outlines of recent talks and presentations.

Blog posts

Recent blog posts in this category include


This presentation looks at the oldest world sporting record – that for throwing the cricket ball that dates back to 1882. It was originally produced for a conference of academic aerodynamicists that didn’t take place and contains both historical and technical material. A written version is given in the blog post The oldest world record – Robert Percival’s 1881 cricket ball throw
This video describes a series experiments to measure pedestrian behaviour in high winds, through the use body and foot mounted instrumentation. The work formed part of a wider EPSRC sponsored project to investigate the safety of pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles in urban areas in high winds. A blog post on these tests can be found at Measuring the behaviour of pedestrians in high winds

Wind Engineering papers

The links given below are to the publishers’ web sites, where the abstract can be read and the publication downloaded with the necessary permissions. Alternatively the final pre-publication of many (but not all) of these can be found the Birmingham Electronic Paper Repository here.

A.D. Quinn, C.J. Baker, 2010, Spatial and temporal correlations of wind speeds, Proceedings of the institution of Civil Engineers. Structures and Buildings 163, 65-72

C.J. Baker, 2010, The calculation of cricket ball trajectories, Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, Proceedings of the IMechE C, 224, 1947-1958, Awarded SAGE prize in 2011 for best paper in Journal in 2010

P. Martinez-Vazquez, C.J. Baker, M. Sterling, A.D. Quinn, P.J. Richards, 2010, Aerodynamic forces on fixed and rotating plates, Wind and Structures, 13, 2 127-144

P. Martinez-Vazquez.M. Sterling, C. J. Baker, A. D. Quinn, P.J. Richards 2011, Autorotation of Square Plates, with Application to Windborne Debris, Wind and Structures, An International Journal 14, 2

S Blenkinsop, Y Zhao, J Quinn, F Berryman, J Thornes, C Baker, H J Fowler, 2012, Downscaling future wind hazard for SE London using the UKCP09 regional climate model ensemble, 53, 141–156

C J Baker, 2013, A unified framework for the prediction of cricket ball trajectories in spin and swing bowling, IMechE Proceedings P – Journal of Sports Engineering, 227, 1 31 – 38

C J Baker, M Sterling, P Berry, 2014, A generalised model of crop lodging, Journal of Theoretical Biology 363, 1–12

C J Baker,2015, Risk analysis of pedestrian and vehicle safety in windy environments, Journal  of  Wind Engineering  and  Industrial Aerodynamics, 147, 283–290

C J Baker, M Sterling, 2017, Modelling wind fields and debris flight in tornadoes, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 168, 312-321 

C Baker, M Sterling, 2018, A conceptual model for wind and debris impact loading of structures due to tornadoes, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics. 175, 283-291

C Baker, M Sterling, 2019,  Are Tornado Vortex Generators fit for purpose? Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 190, 287-292

M. Mohammadi, J. M. Finnan, C. J. Baker and M. Sterling, 2020, The potential impact of climate change on oat lodging in the UK and Republic of Ireland, Advances in Meteorology,  4138469, 16 pp

G. M. D. Joseph, M. Mohammadi, M. Sterling, C. Baker, S. G. Gillmeier, D. Soper, M. Jesson, G. A. Blackburn, J. D. Whyatt, D. Gullick, J. Murray, P. Berry, D. Hartley, J. Finnan (2020) Determination of crop dynamic and aerodynamic parameters for lodging prediction, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 202,104169

C Baker, M Sterling, M Jesson (2020) The lodging of crops by tornadoes, Journal of Theoretical Biology 500, 110309

G. Vita, Z. Shu, M. Jesson, A. Quinn, H. Hemida, M. Sterling , C. Baker (2020) On the assessment of pedestrian distress in urban winds, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 203, 104200

M Mohammadi, J Finnan, M Sterling, C Baker (2020) A calibrated oat lodging model compared with agronomic measurements, Field Crops Research 255, 107784