Train Aerodynamics

I have worked in the field of train aerodynamics since my time at the Railway Technical Centre in Derby in the early 1980s, and have carried out research on trains in cross winds, slipstreams, pressure loading, drag etc.. This page contains links to the following.

  • Details of the recent book written by myself and colleagues – Train Aerodynamics – Fundamentals and Applications.
  • Blog posts and presentations on the subject of train aerodynamics
  • A list of recent papers in train aerodynamics, of which I was a significant author, together with links to publisher’s sites.
  • Details of recent PhD theses that I have supervised, with links to the University of Birmingham Repository from where they can be downloaded.

Train Aerodynamics blog posts

Recent blog posts in this category include

Train Aerodynamics papers

The links given below are to the publishers’ web sites, where the abstract can be read and the publication downloaded with the necessary permissions. Alternatively the final pre-publication of many (but not all) of these can be found the Birmingham Electronic Paper Repository here.

C J Baker, A Quinn, M Sima, L Hoefener, R Licciardello, 2013, Full-scale measurement and analysis of train slipstreams and wakes: Part 1 Ensemble averages. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, 228, 5, 451-467, Part 2 Gust analysis, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit 228, 5, 468-480

C J Baker, 2013, A framework for the consideration of the effects of crosswinds on trains, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 123, 130–142

T Gilbert, C J Baker, A D Quinn, 2013, Aerodynamic pressures around high-speed trains: the transition from unconfined to enclosed spaces, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid 227, 6, 608-621

T Gilbert, C J Baker, A D Quinn, 2013, Gusts caused by high speed trains in confined spaces and tunnels, Journal of wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 121, 39–48 

 C J Baker, S J Jordan, T Gilbert, M Sterling, A Quinn, T Johnson, J Lane, 2014, Transient aerodynamic pressures and forces on trackside and overhead structures due to passing trains. Part 1 Model scale experiments”, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid 228 36 – 69, Part 2 Standards applications, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid, 22836 – 69

D Soper, C J Baker, M Sterling, 2014, Experimental investigation of the slipstream development around a container freight train using a moving model facility, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 135, 105–117 

F Dorigatti, M Sterling, C J Baker, A D Quinn, 2015, Crosswind effects on the stability of a model passenger train – a comparison of static and moving experiments, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 138, 36-51 

D Soper, M Gallagher, C Baker , Quinn A, 2017, A model-scale study to assess the influence of ground geometries on aerodynamic flow development around a train, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit  231, 8, 916-933  

D Soper, C Baker, A Jackson, D Milne, L Le Pen, G Watson, W Powrie, 2017, Full scale measurements of train underbody flows and track forces, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 169, 251-264 

D Soper, D Flynn, D, C Baker, A Jackson, H Hemida, 2017, A comparison of methods to simulate the aerodynamic flow beneath a high speed train, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, 44

M Gallagher, J Morden, C Baker, D Soper, A Quinn, H Hemida, M Sterling (2018) Trains in crosswinds – comparison of full-scale on-train measurements, physical model tests and CFD calculations, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 175, 428-444 

C Baker, M Sterling (2018) The calculation of train stability in tornado winds, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 176, 158-165

P Iliadis, D Soper, C Baker, H Hemida (2018) Experimental investigation of the aerodynamics of a freight train passing through a tunnel using a moving model, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit

Y Noguchia, M Suzukia, C Baker, K Nakade (2019) Numerical and experimental study on the aerodynamic force coefficients of railway vehicles on an embankment in crosswind, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 184, 90-105

D Soper, C Baker, 2019, A full scale experimental investigation of passenger and freight train aerodynamics, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit  

D Soper, S Gillmeier, C Baker, T Morgan, L Vojnovic, (2019) “Aerodynamic forces on railway acoustic barriers”, Journal of Wind Engineering an Industrial Aerodynamics 19, 266-278

Train Aerodynamics PhD theses

From the University of Birmingham Thesis Repository

N Perez Solero (2012) Measurement and analysis of slipstreams for passenger trains

T Gilbert (2014) Aerodynamic effect of high speed trains in confined spaces

D Soper (2014) The aerodynamics of a container freight train

D. Flynn (2015) A numerical investigation of the effect of crosswinds on the slipstream of a model-scale freight train and associated effects

J. Morden (2017) A numerical investigation of the effects of crosswinds upon the aerodynamic characteristics of a high-speed passenger train and its slipstream

M Gallagher (2017) Experimental investigation of the aerodynamics of a class 43 high speed train

P. Illiadis (2020) Aerodynamics of a freight train passing through a tunnel (not yet in Thesis Repository)

Train Aerodynamics presentations

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This video investigates if there is a best shape for a train that will minimised he risk of a wind induced overturning accident occurring. More detail is given in the blog post Train crosswind performance – is there best shape?